Archive for the ‘sausal creek watershed’ Category

Redwood Canyon Formation

8 April 2010

The Redwood Canyon Formation sits above the Shephard Creek Formation in what’s called a conformable relationship, indicating that the two units represent a continuous span of time. The difference between the two formations is that where the Shephard Creek is fine-grained, the Redwood Canyon Formation is coarse, consisting mostly of wacke (dirty sandstone) and some siltstone. Neither of these rock types is rich in clay, whereas the mudstone and shale of the Shephard Creek Formation are pretty much defined by it.

redwood canyon formation

Again, this unit dates from the Campanian Age of the Late Cretaceous Epoch, which extends from 83 to 71 million years ago. And again, it’s steeply tilted by activity along the nearby Hayward fault, although it was originally laid down in flat-lying beds. It holds up steeper slopes in Shepherd Canyon, being a stronger rock than the underlying unit. Elsewhere, the Redwood Canyon Formation turns into the Pinehurst Shale going upsection, but in Shepherd Canyon that unit does not appear, having been removed by faulting.

There’s another photo from this formation here.

Shephard Creek Formation

29 March 2010

Moving up the stratigraphic section along Shepherd Canyon Drive, as seen in the Railroad Walk, we go from the Joaquin Miller Formation to the Oakland Conglomerate. (Because I’ve already posted three pages on the Oakland Conglomerate, I’ve put links to them instead on the Joaquin Miller Formation post.) Then comes the Shephard Creek Formation, separated from the underlying Oakland Conglomerate by a fault. It appears in this sloppy outcrop at the very beginning of the Railroad Walk under a tree.

shephard creek formation

Because the walk arcs into and then out of the underlying Oakland Conglomerate, you see the Shephard Creek Formation again at the far end of the big cut in this better outcrop. But beyond that the rock is hard to find.

shephard creek formation

It’s a unit of mostly soft, fine-grained rock, mudstone and shale. Shale is more or less pure clay, and mudstone is shale with some fine grit (silt) in it. The unit also has some siltstone and a few thin beds of coarser wacke. What stands out about it is that, as the mapper says, it’s “distinctly bedded.” The whole thing is of Campanian age, meaning the stretch of the Late Cretaceous Epoch between 83 and 71 million years ago, presumably early in that time. (The age is named for the well-studied rock sequence around Naples, Italy, in the Campania region.) It’s not really as blue as this hand specimen—blame the light from the sky for that—but it does get dark where thin coatings of iron minerals accumulate.

shephard creek formation

I would say that this rock does not support the steepest slopes. The canyon is a little wider here, along Shepherd Canyon Park, than it is upstream where the rocks change to the Redwood Canyon Formation and the hills grow higher.

Joaquin Miller Formation

18 March 2010

At my talk last night to the Friends of Sausal Creek, I delivered a lot of information about the rock units exposed along Shephard Creek. For a while here I will post what I showed the crowd, starting at the bottom.

The Joaquin Miller Formation is a thick sequence of mostly shale, around 95 million years old (Late Cretaceous Epoch, specifically the Cenomanian Age). It underlies nearly all the east side of the valley of Palo Seco Creek, running into Joaquin Miller Park. It weathers readily there, turning easily back into the clay it once was. This exposure is a roadcut at the intersection of Scout and Ascot drives. The beds are steeply tilted into the hillside, something that’s true of all the rocks in the canyon.

joaquin miller formation

And here’s a closeup.

joaquin miller formation

These rocks mostly crumble in the hand. Toward the top of the unit, it gets more sandy; an example is shown here from the bed of Shephard Creek. Eventually it turns to straight sandstone and gets a new name, the Oakland Conglomerate (here are three pages on that rock unit, 123).

The Joaquin Miller Formation was laid down far from land, but not very far. This is all brown clay that comes from continental sources, and the occasional sandy beds are evidence that underwater landslides could sometimes reach here. Picture it way out in the Gulf of Mexico, where Mississippi River mud can cascade down the continental slope for great distances.


28 February 2010

Wacke is pronounced “wacky.” It’s a name for coarse sandstone that contains a lot of junk: clay, rock fragments and minerals other than quartz. This is a closeup of wacke from the Oakland Conglomerate from Shepherd Canyon (more about that below).


The geologist looks at this and envisions a young mountain range with rivers carrying its coarse debris offshore, where a submarine canyon carries the stuff into a deep basin. Something like the Russian River, or the Mad or Eel Rivers, and a canyon like the Monterey Canyon. This rock formed about 70 to 80 million years ago, in the Campanian Age of the Cretaceous Period.

I’m going to be giving a talk on March 17th to the Friends of Sausal Creek about the geology of its watershed, which runs through Fruitvale and up Shepherd Canyon and the slopes of Joaquin Miller Park. Everyone is invited and there is no charge. It’ll be at the Dimond Library, 3565 Fruitvale Avenue, from 7 to 9 p.m. I’ll be bringing rocks and showing Powerpoints and possibly being a little wacky. What else have you got to do the night of St. Patrick’s Day?

Punk shale

23 February 2010

Up along Skyline Boulevard between Snake and Shepherd Canyon Roads is a long section of crumbling roadcut. The rock there is mapped as brown mudstone that has been questionably assigned to the Sobrante Formation. OK, enough of that. What struck me about it is how weak it is. This exposure is an excavation, probably for a garage, dug a good four meters deep into the hillside. And all the way in, it consists of this crappy stuff. Click the photo for an 800×800 closeup.

punk shale

The bedding slopes to the right; you can see three different units in this shot which is maybe two meters high. On top is a blocky layer richly stained with iron; the middle is lighter and crumblier, and on the bottom is a dark claystone. The big vertical streaks are backhoe marks, that’s how soft this material is. You can pluck it apart with your hands, scratch it with your fingernail. The dark layer is as creamy as chocolate between the teeth. As I stood there, the rattle of falling pebbles was nearly constant.

Covered with soil and shaded by trees, this rock will stay in place all right. But excavate into it and it turns to dry rubble. The roadcut is a steep slope of loose shale bits, topped with a meter or so of fresh strata and a big tangle of exposed tree roots dangling in the air. When the next big earthquake hits Oakland, expect this stretch of road to be buried and barred by fallen trees.

I think it’s earthquakes that have shattered this rock so pervasively over the years. It took thousands of them to lift these hills, and the process continues as surely as the continents move. Also, high, steep hills tend to focus seismic waves toward their peaks. Consider this account of the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake in the Los Angeles Star (17 Jan 1857):

“We may here relate what has come to our knowledge through the Rev. Mr. Bateman, who was traveling to Fort Tejon at the time. Previous to feeling the earth’s vibration, his attention, and that of his party, was attracted by a tremendous noise issuing from a mountain in that neighborhood, south of the Fort. Immediately after, they felt the shock. In conversation with Mr. Botts, in charge of the mill at the Fort, he stated that his attention was also attracted by the same noise, and on looking towards the mountain, he saw issue from its topmost peak, a mass of rock and earth, which was forced high into the air—this was unaccompanied by smoke or fire. The shock immediately succeeded. Thereafter, a noise from that mountain was premonitory of every succeeding shock, no matter how slight.”

Redwood Canyon Formation

18 February 2010

I visited the Montclair Railroad Trail yesterday, while the sun was shining, and found it a delightful transect of some important Oakland bedrock, including this.

redwood canyon formation

The Redwood Canyon Formation is part of the Great Valley sequence, a thick sequence of sedimentary rocks laid down between 150 and maybe 60 million years ago. It’s a late member of the pile, largely sandstone and siltstone in thick layers like this.

The Redwood Canyon Formation runs in a ribbon from the fault at route 13, roughly at Thornhill Drive, up and across the middle of Shepherd Canyon and over the canyon’s south lip into the canyon of Redwood Creek outside the city limits. Skyline Boulevard runs through it between the Skyline Gate staging area and Ascot Drive. Redwood Peak is held up by it. As the name suggests, it’s well exposed farther south on the other side of the hills on both sides of Redwood Creek as well as the lower part of Redwood Canyon along Redwood Road.

Lower Shephard Creek

15 March 2009

shepherd creek

Shephard Creek flows down Shephard Canyon, on the south edge of Montclair. At least that’s what the U.S. Geological Survey says on the Oakland topographic map. The city calls it Shepherd Canyon and Creek, and the road running up the canyon near the old railroad grade is called Shepherd Canyon Road. Anyway, Shephard Creek is culverted for most of its length, and only a little of it runs free at its bottom end, near its junction with Palo Seco Creek to form Sausal Creek.

When I was scouting out the Oakland Conglomerate, I went down to the creek bed behind the firehouse. It’s full of nondescript boulders of shale and sandstone like those in the foreground. But a tiny bit of bedrock crops out. The geologic map shows this area as the Joaquin Miller Formation, a shale/sandstone unit just beneath the Oakland Conglomerate that is of Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian, about 94 Ma) age.

Next time I’ll make sure to have my Brunton compass—that’s a heavy-duty compass and clinometer that geologists use to observe the orientation of rock beds, their strike (azimuth) and dip (inclination). The Oakland geologic map doesn’t show a strike-and-dip symbol here, so maybe I can add a data point to the big picture. Geologists prefer to make many observations at a locality and average them before drawing that symbol, though. Maybe this single small outcrop, rare though it is, isn’t significant enough. A little farther downstream, the boulders disappear and the streambank is serpentinite. The big patterns on a geologic map may cover up a great deal of variation.


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