The Hayward fault in Redwood Heights

3 May 2014

It happens that a commenter asked about the Hayward fault hazard in an area that I surveyed only yesterday, just south of the part of town I discussed back in January under “The 35th Avenue cut, Jordan swale and the Franciscan spike.” This post looks strictly at the Hayward fault between 35th and 39th Avenues and not, as I usually prefer, at the bedrock (there’s almost none to be seen here anyway). Here’s the fault trace, as mapped in 1992 by the US Geological Survey.

RedwdHightsfaultmap

First, note that the map is tipped clockwise to make the fault run vertically. The fault is mapped here with an uncertainty of less than 40 meters; the ticks on the dashes indicate the downhill side. To help orient you, here’s much the same area in Google Maps, tilted to match.

HF-RedwoodHights-map

The two arrowheads mark where the fault is mapped and the two numbers are the localities I’m showing below. The lower arrowhead coincides with the fiduciary mark on 39th Avenue.

The first locality is the lower end of Dunsmuir Avenue at Victor Avenue, where the street curbs are offset to the right.

HF-dunsmuir-victor

The offset is more subtle on the south side (to the right in this view). The pavement on the corner is cracked, but that can happen when a garbage truck cuts across it, to name just one possibility. But there is an offset there, along with a recent sawcut to help gauge any motion there.

HFmark-dunsmuir-corner

To the north, the next street to cross the fault trace is Atlas Avenue. The curb is offset there, too.

HF-atlas

This is marked on the 1992 fault map with the notation “C2,rc,rs,ec.” That signifies “distinct creep evidence, right-laterally offset curb [and] sidewalk, en echelon left-stepping cracks in pavement.” The cracks are not evident now; presumably they were where the pavement has been patched. Offset concrete is harder to hide. (On 39th Avenue the code also includes “right-laterally offset fence line,” “surveyed offset feature” and the code L91 for a particular report documenting the survey.)

The features marked “G” are geomorphic ones, G2 for “distinct” and G3 for “weakly pronounced.” The codes are as follows: sl, linear scarp; lv, linear valley; ss, swale in saddle; df, fault-related depression.

The land is weird here. Drainage from the reservoir area appears to run north instead of west, perhaps feeding the head of Courtland Creek just south of 35th as I envisioned it happening from north of 35th too. If that’s correct, it would be another example of an offset streamcourse (and a corresponding shutter ridge). As earthquakes and creep affect the landscape here, water could shift from one drainage to another in this area where three different creeks run very close to one another.

Manzanita ridge

28 April 2014

The ridge traversed by Manzanita Drive is one of Oakland’s highest residential areas, higher than 1400 feet. It’s the home-studded rise in the Oakland skyline to the right of Round Top in the blog’s banner image. Here’s the topographic view, from Google Maps:

manz-ridge-topo

. . . and here’s the matching part of the geologic map:

manz-ridge-geo

The ridge crest is held up by the Claremont Chert (Tcc), while Skyline Boulevard and Arrowhead Drive, running parallel just to its south, go through the crumbly Sobrante Formation (Tsm). (The other formations are the Orinda Formation, Tor, and the unnamed Eocene sandstone of upper Shepard Canyon, Tes.) Here’s the chert exposed at the west end of Manzanita; it and the next two photos click bigger.

Click for 800-pixel version

The views are terrific. Here’s the view north over the Huckleberry saddle to the smaller ridge of Claremont Chert that Elverton Drive skirts.

Click for 1000-pixel version

The middle of Manzanita offers fine views of Round Top.

Click for 800-pixel version

And the other end of Manzanita, past the unexpected Hills Swim & Tennis Club, is another saddle at the top of Shephard Canyon where the road to Canyon and Moraga crosses the hills.

skyline-shep-pinehurst-saddle

More than anywhere else in Oakland, this is an island in the sky.

Arroyo Viejo emerges

13 April 2014

Quietly, at the edge of the Coliseum station parking lot, Arroyo Viejo comes out of hiding from beneath Hegenberger Expressway. It runs under the walkway to the Coliseum and joins Lion Creek just short of the bay.

arroyoviejomouth

Even in its coffinlike culvert, the stream wants to curve, laying a gravelly point bar on its left bank and trying in vain to erode the angle of the culvert’s course into a nice meander. Sorry, old creek.

Local stone

31 March 2014

I always get a kick from old walls around Oakland that are made of local stones. This one is on Loma Vista Avenue, in the upper Laurel.

lomavista-stonewall450

Click the image to see a 1000-pixel shot of the whole thing. The mix of blue Franciscan rocks, golden Tertiary sandstones and the occasional reddish chert is distinctive, and it’s nothing that a local landscaping yard would ever offer. Its charm is homely and understated, but authentic.

We haven’t had a working quarry in Oakland for many years, so a lot of these walls are old, or rebuilt. Lovers of local stone today have to scavenge what they can from recycled rocks or their own cellar holes.

Our slides

26 March 2014

A large, deadly landslide in northern Washington has been making news. Smaller ones around here aren’t deadly, thank goodness, but they are sneaky and expensive and everywhere.

slidescarp

This isn’t a landslide yet, but these concentric cracks in Skyline Boulevard are typical signs of slumping ground. A city with more money to maintain streets would have dribbled tar over these cracks when they first appeared, a year or two ago. As it is, each crack lets rainwater into the hillside where it promotes more slumping. Keeping the road sealed will buy a few years’ time.

This location is underlain by the same incompetent Sobrante Formation that gave the Caldecott Tunnel builders such trouble. But landslides occur in Oakland on nearly every geologic unit, from the lower streambanks to the highest hills.

Fruitvale Station vista

24 March 2014

Sometimes the weather is clear enough, but just hazy enough, to reveal the details of the landscape for quite some distance. A week ago the view down the line from the Fruitvale BART station looked like this.

fruitvalestationview450

I know it’s a small image, so click on it for an annotated 1000-pixel version. Most of the view extends beyond Oakland city limits. The farthest peaks are in the Ohlone Wilderness east of San Jose, some 30 miles away. Once you become familiar with our skyline, it’s never boring.

The Easton & Wilson Quarry

6 March 2014

The Head-Royce School occupies a lovely secluded site next to Lincoln Avenue. Naturally, it was once a quarry.

headroycequarry1

Not just any quarry, although its product was ordinary: crushed rock of indifferent quality. It was the quarry for Easton & Wilson, a paving and construction company founded in the late 1890s by Kimball G. Easton and Arthur R. Wilson. (Wilson also partnered with Easton’s brother Stanley in the Leona Heights Quarry.) In approximately 1905, the business was liquidated by transferring its assets to a new venture by Easton and his brother-in-law Warren Porter named Granite Rock Company. The firm is still in business today as Graniterock, which operates a large quarry on the San Andreas fault in Aromas, near San Juan Bautista.

The rock here was described by the state bureau of mines as “a blue metamorphosed sandstone” mixed with softer sandstone and shale that created a lot of waste. It is right at the edge of the Piedmont block of Franciscan sandstone, a district I described in more detail as the Oakmore block. Near the upper end of the school property, the rock walls are still exposed, as seen from Lincoln Avenue.

headroycequarry2

Stone magazine reported in 1900 that Easton & Wilson was sued to stop from opening a quarry on Fruitvale Avenue, on the grounds that the blasting would “addle the eggs in the chicken ranches, which form the leading industry in the neighborhood.”

Apparently this ground sat for 60 years after the quarry closed. The Head-Royce School relocated to the property in 1964. The MacArthur Metro gave more details about the school’s history in 2013.


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